Friday, December 25, 2015

FUTURE ISLAMIC STUDIES CURRICULUM AND ITS INSTRUCTION: A GLIMPSE AT AL AMIN INTEGRATED ISLAMIC CURRICULUM (AAIIC)

 
 Nor Zalmiah Jahidin1 and Hamidah Mat2
1Pusat Pendidikan Al-Amin, Gombak, Selangor 2Center for Foundation Studies, IIUM Malaysia 1norzalmiahjahidin@gmail.com 2usumayyah.hm@gmail.com  

ABSTRAK 
Kertas kerja ini memberi penumpuan kepada kandungan kurikulum pengajian Islam serta metodologi penyampaian yang bersesuaian untuk masa ini dan akan datang. Abad ke dua puluh satu yang diwarnai dengan kepelbagaian dari aspek ciri-ciri dan jurang generasi, pendedahan kepada alam siber tanpa sempadan, kemudahan teknologi maklumat dan komunikasi serta proses pembaratan yang sangat pesat memerlukan perhatian yang serius dan khusus. Untuk membekalkan pelajar dengan kurikulum pengajian Islam beserta penghayatannya dalam abad ini, aspek-aspek tersebut perlu diambil kira. Sebelum itu, gambaran sepintas lalu mengenai perkembangan kandungan kurikulum pengajian Islam dan pengajaran turut dibincangkan.  
 
ABSTRACT 
This paper focuses on Islamic studies curriculum and its instruction that is appropriate for this contemporary age and century. The twenty-first century is marked by diversity in terms of generation gap and its characteristics, the readily exposure to the borderless cyberspace, the availability of information technology and communication facility and the fast encroaching westernization process, which require very serious and special attention. To provide students with the appropriate Islamic studies curriculum and instruction, and hence its internalization these aspects should be taken into consideration. Prior to that, an overview of the development of Islamic studies curriculum and its instruction is also discussed.
 
Keywords: islamic studies, curriculum, instruction, contemporary, future, worldview, civilization
Oasis International Conference on Islamic Education (OICIE2014) on 5 November 2014 at PWTC, Kuala Lumpur Positioning and Repositioning Islamic Education 

1. INTRODUCTION 
The present condition of the Muslim state and Ummah (community of Muslims) are way behind not only in science and technology, information and communication technology (ICT), and physical development but most importantly adoption of principles such as justice, freedom, wisdom and bring goodness to people are also lacking. These are the universal and yet inclusive principles, which form the very purpose of Shari‟ah (Audah, 2008). To our surprise,  Ireland followed closely by Denmark and Luxembourgh are at the forefront of the Islamicity index, ahead of most Muslim countries with respect to the proximity of principles to those in the Qur‟an, which they applied on economic justice, legal governance and structures, human and political rights and international relation (IslamiCommunity, 2014). To rectify the situation, education being the main vehicle of civilization should play a pivotal role in revitalizing the Ummah. Muslim intellectuals and scholars should deliberate on issues of Islamic education ranging from simply establishing an Islamic school to the complexities of designing the right curriculum and its instruction.  
 
2. BRIEF DEVELOPMENT OF ISLAMIC STUDIES CURRICULUM AND ITS INSTRUCTION
  
The knowledge of Islam came down to the world through our Prophet Muhammad PBUH more than 1400 years ago. The first five verses of the Qur‟an from Chapter al-’Alaq (the Clot), which says

1)      Proclaim! (or Read) in the name of your Lord and Cherisher, who created
2)      Created man, out of a leech-like clot.
3)      Proclaim! And your Lord is Most Bountiful,
4)      He Who taught (the use of) the Pen,
5)      Taught man that which he knew not 

had successfully transformed the worldview of the Arab society with respect to their theological, metaphysical and epistemological dimensions, that is, the verses had revolutionized the thinking of the pagan Arabs (Wan Daud, 1998). With the pronouncement of the word Iqra' followed by twenty-three years of instructional Divine had developed the worldview which formed the basis of every action of the early Muslim community. This worldview changed and shaped the beliefs, personality, thoughts, ideas, and practices which successfully formed the community on a system that benefited all. A system that prioritized maqasid al-Shari'ah (objectives or benefits of Shari‟ah) ensures the Muslim community to also protect the rights and responsibilities of non-Muslim communities as enshrined in Sahifah al Madinah (Constitution of Madinah). On this understanding, a kind of consensus and cooperation was formed among all members of society of diverse ethnic and religious groups, which led to foster a prosperous civilization. 

In the early days of Islam, the Islamic knowledge was transmitted through a simple preaching by the Prophet PBUH himself to the companions RA be it in public or private. The house of al Arqam RA and the seat of ahl al-Suffah in the Masjid al-Nabawi besides halaqah (circles) were known to be early seats of learning in Islam for adults and kuttab or maktab held in the mosques were for childrens‟ education. As time progressed, the Islamic knowledge for children was organised accordingly from the rudiments of writing, reading and memorization of the Qur‟an, studying grammar and doing calligraphy, and arithmetic to a more advance and complex combination (Nor Zalmiah, 2009).  

Oasis International Conference on Islamic Education (OICIE2014) on 5 November 2014 at PWTC, Kuala Lumpur Positioning and Repositioning Islamic Education 

The early Middle Period, which began in 950 A.D marked the most creative period of the intellectual history in Islam. Aside from the classical religious sciences being solidified, the translation and transmission of foreign sciences had finalized their chapters, which was an important and significant chapter made possible and flourished by the early Umayyad conquests and especially „Abbasid‟s ascension to power (Gutas, 1998). A more than century of translation and preparation allowed the Muslims to come into full possession of all the available knowledge from the Greek, Indian, Persian, and Greaco-Roman (Amin, 1946).  By the end of the 10th century, „almost all non-literary and non-historical secular Greek books that were available throughout the Eastern Byzantine Empire and the Near East were translated into Arabic‟ (Gutas, 1998).  The latter was preceded  by „reliable manuscripts were sought, even as far as Byzantine empire, texts were carefully copied and collated, editions were produced, translations were made, and commentaries were written‟ (Kraemer, 1992).  

Noteworthy, in the 14th century knowledge of al-Qur‟an remained central in the curriculum of the day despite the variation in time allocation that is subjected to each region namely the Maghrib, the Spain, the Africa and the East (Ibn Khaldun, 1958). The East as noted by Ibn Khaldun retained the tradition of scientific instruction whereby it trains students in the ability to express oneself clearly in disscussing and disputing scientific problems, which could not be acquired through much memorization (1958). However, this was conducted poorly in the Maghrib and was disappearing among the inhabitants of Spain (Ibn Khaldun,1958). The education system which existed then was unique in the sense that, the system that produced great scholars in the past was not restricted to the madrasah as a formal institution, but rather to the whole learning culture of the community, of the varied learning institutions, the scholars as institutions in themselves, the institution of subhah or fellowship, the culture of rihla and the political leadership (Hannan, 2003) 

Scientific process (Acikgenc, 2008), which constitutes stages commencing with a worldview to problems, disciplines, naming, and progress had produced a multitude of multidisciplinary scholars and disciplines to the extent of some being encyclopedic. It is from this fountain of intellectual and scientific traditions that the Europeans in the renaissance period quenched their thirst and inherited the Muslim legacy, which served as the basis of their intellectual awakening (Watt, 1972). The Muslim legacy is a rich intellectual heritage that springs from various sources which are the Qur‟an and al-Hadith, and also from the civilizations of Greek, Persian, Greco-Roman, and Indian.  Somehow, the post colonialization period saw the curriculum and its instruction assumed in a different form. What exists today somehow depicts the extend the Muslim education particularly  Islamic studies curriculum and its instruction was effected by colonisation that slowly pave the way for westernization.  

2.1. The Present State of Muslim Education and Islamic Studies Curriculum in  Malaysia
 
Malaysia with more than 50% of her population being Muslims from inception has given attention to Muslim schools and its curriculum. Its development from private to formal education and its curriculum development are succinctly elaborated in „Educational Dualism‟ (Rosnani, 1996). To date Malaysia has private, semi private, government and international Islamic schools implementing either private, Malaysian religious bodies, national and international curriculum such as al Azhar. The latest addition to Islamic school is MARA‟s Ulul Albab Science Junior Colleges (MRSM). Under this program, in addition to academic and religious studies elective they also offer a Tahfiz program, which they hope to produce professionals and huffaz. Undoubtedly, the administration and management of some of Islamic schools are becoming more efficient and professional but the instruction of curriculum is yet to be up graded and more contemporary in line with the development of ICT. Despite the Malaysian government effort at introducing such as high order thinking skills (HOTS), child centered education as well as collaborative, exploratory and mastery learning in teaching and learning (TnL), not much progress is seen in TnL of Islamic studies curriculum and its instruction. 
 
Sardar (1985) states that, „both the classical and the modern approaches to Islamic studies concentrate on Islam as a religion and culture. Be it memorizing the Qur‟an or Hadith, mastering the opinions of the classical jurists or learning Islamic history, the emphasis is on rote learning and collecting facts‟, thus amounting to students being vast storehouses of facts and opinions. Contemporary literature on Islamic education also highlights the traditional approach to curriculum and instruction of Islamic studies. Among the practices are the emphasis on memorization (hifz) than understanding (fiqh), memorization of facts than internalization, fiqh originally intended to mean religious insight and discernment becomes restricted to mean jurisprudence, and becoming huffaz (those who know the Qur‟an by heart) assumes as the primary objective as compared to the early generation of huffaz’s engagement towards understanding al Din. Al Qardhawi (1996) cautions that the existing Islamic education system‟s preference to hifz in a way could result in producing silent witnesses devoid of deep comprehension. What is worrying, the Muslim mind does not have enough courage to analyze its intellectual legacy or what it holds as sacred resulting in not understanding what is really important, distinguishing between what is fundamental and absolute, and what is temporary and limited as emphasized by AbuSulayman (1993). It is timely to note the point made by Rahman (1982) that Islamic intellectualism should be the essence of especially higher Islamic education for the growth of genuine, original and adequate Islamic thought is the real criterion for judging the success or failure of an Islamic education system. Thus, Sardar (1985) proposes that Islamic education system should aim at producing insan whose „strength lies in the ability to perceive Islam not as a mere religion but as a dynamic world-view, to synthesize the historical and the modern, and to appreciate the concerns of the traditional sectors of the Muslim population while possessing the intellectual apparatus to communicate with the modernists‟. This kind of insan is further refined by al Attas (1999) as man of adab (insan adabi), that is a man with a disciplined body, mind, and spirit with respect to his obligations towards his Creator, Allah SWT.
  
3. A FRAMEWORK FOR FUTURE ISLAMIC STUDIES CURRICULUM: HIGHER LEARNING 
Future Islamic studies curriculum is proposed to embrace the entire field of traditional Islamic knowledge. The uniqueness of this curriculum is that it holds worldview of Islam as important. Islamic principles and concepts are intended to shape the thinking and understanding on Islam‟s comprehensiveness, which is beyond religion, culture or way of life. Appropriate for this age, Islam needs to be translated as a civilization that spans the fields of religion and spirituality, worship and muamalah (interaction between people), law and justice, politics and government, economy, education and science, art and literature, culture, nutrition and health, science and technology and the environment. Applying relevant principles from al Qur‟an and al Hadith in those fields helps build a prosperous civilization. 
 
Islamic worldview which revolves around the oneness of Allah SWT, apostleship, the purpose of creation, morality and values, knowledge, and the Hereafter will provide a firm and strong standing against all kinds of doubts, chaos, confusion and uncertainties as a result of embracing Western worldview (process of westernization). The view has succeeded in shaping an understanding and thinking of a large number of Muslim Ummah in matters of religion, science, ethics and education, science and technology, tradition, modernity and development. A westernization of thought will result in forming alien values, culture, thoughts, and even stance among generations of Muslims today. Thenceforth, the resulting reaction or solution offered to the problem today is not real solution rather it results in new problems or lead to more destruction. In order to interpret Islam as a civilization, TnL of the traditional Islamic studies curriculum needs to be presented in the form of a worldview. Two pre-requisites for implementation are: a) Curriculum should not be compartmentalized according to traditional division  but instead it should be integrative in nature b) TnL should be in the form of a multi-disciplinary and inter-disciplinary approach in which wisdom is highlighted, 'izzah (take pride in being Muslims) is nurtured and collection of facts and data should be minimal.  

3.1.  Organization of Subjects 
3.1.1.  Sources of Islamic Thought  
Islamic thought is derived from the Revelation and reason. Revelations as contained in the Qur'an are translated by al-Sunnah and developed further by the use of guided mind. Intellectual environment at the beginning of Islamic civilization has led to the exchange of knowledge in the field of theology, philosophy, metaphysics and logic. This activity involved not only Muslims but also others of different religions, cultures and nations who contributed to the enrichment of the body of knowledge in Islam. However, the “materials” procured by the Muslims from diverse sources during the first three centuries of Islamic history, were infact integrated and absorbed into the unitary perspective of Islam (Nasr, 1976). The intellectual tradition spans various aspects in scope and depth covering ulum al-Qur'an (science of al Qur;an), ulum al-Hadith (science of al Hadith), usul al-fiqh (principles of jurisprudence), ‘ilm kalam (teology), tasawwuf (metaphysics), philosophy, logic and science. 
 
3.1.2.  Worldview of Islam 
Worldview of Islam revolves around the principles and basic concepts of Islam amongst which are the Divinity, apostleship, the creation of man and nature and its purpose, knowledge, moral, value and causality. They are in fact elements of philosophy in the Islamic perspective. The perfect world and full of beauties would somehow jolt the human‟s conscience with regards to the existence of the Creator, Who administers the world with love, compassion and care. The belief that life in this world is temporary and the Hereafter is eternal, will lead men to be vigilant with respect to their actions. His lowly origin must make men realize their responsibility to inhabit and perform their roles and duties on the earth in such a way that Allah‟s justice prevails. Knowledge and values, which are based on authentic and permanent sources, will add confidence and give exposure to real truth. In sum, this  
section will focus on iman (faith), Islam and ihsan (striving for excellence) as well as related matters so as to be able to further clarify the principles and concepts discussed. 

3.1.3.  Foundations of Islamic Civilization 
Sirah (biography) of the Prophet PBUH serves as the basis of reference for contemporary Islamic civilization. Early effort and contribution made by Khulafa 'al-Rashidun (the Rightly Guided Caliphs) followed by Muslim rules before and after the Mongol invasion portray the nature of civilization which was supported by the systems and institutions then. Based on the basic principles of al-Qur'an and al-Sunnah and these models, a form of contemporary civilization maybe realized. Biography of the Prophets AS, history of Islam, concepts and principles as well as some of the systems and institutions of choice are to be frame of reference and shall be translated in the changing circumstances. In short, adopting a contemporary Islamic asalah solution becomes the agenda of reviving the Ummah and civilization. 

3.1.4.  Contemporary Fiqh (Fiqh al-Mu’asirah) 
Life today requires a true understanding of the reality and change. The state of the community and Ummah today is shaped by various factors. Effort to identify these factors is important so that a problem can be addressed reliably. Challenges in thoughts, globalization, science and technology as well as change and development must be assessed in accordance with the framework of Islamic thought. In the effort to move forward, oftentimes the Ummah is held back by certain classical fiqh. Thus it is timely to venture into this confine and offer appropriate fiqh as a way forward. 

3.1.5. The Caliph Program@Al Amin  
The Caliph program provides opportunities for students to apply theory in real situations. It extends an opportunity to serve the community, nation and the world while portraying Islam as rahmatan lil ‘alamin (mercy to the universe). Research based activities and in-depth involvement are to be part of this program. Most importantly, under this program students are trained as leaders and will also undergo a Tarbiyyah (training) program with all its wasail (means) and objectives as means to nurture Islamic identity (Nor Zalmiah, 2011).
 
Students pursuing this Islamic studies curriculum will be able to:
a) Understand and appreciate the comprehensiveness of Islam. 
b) Understand and appreciate the worldview of Islam. 
c) Understand and internalize the role of „ibad and khulafa’ (servants and  vicegerents) towards self-improvement, community and the world in their respective fields of involvement or specialization 
d) Evaluate and analyze current problems. 
e) Solving current problems according to the worldview of Islam‟s framework
f) Prepare students to: 
   i. deal with the present and future challenges therefore the curriculum should be relevant, dynamic 
   and meaningful. 
  ii. invite others to goodness, justice, brotherhood, freedom, and equality in accordance with the  
   nature of Islam as rahmatan li'l 'alamin. 
 iii. be equipped intellectually, spiritually, emotionally, socially, and physically. 
 iv. enhance the integration between acquiring knowledge and internalization  

Realizing the fact that experts in the field of religion need to be groomed to face challenges outside their own field, a curriculum that addresses current issues is needed.  Further studies, research, and refinements will be able to realize a viable future Islamic studies curriculum. It is hoped that Islamic curriculum of this century has the ability to cope with the challenges of contemporary cultures and thoughts.  

4. PPAA’S EFFORT AT AL AMIN INTEGRATED ISLAMIC CURRICULUM AND ITS INSTRUCTION  
With the passing of time, policy makers, leadership and management as well of educators exert and research the most suitable curriculum and its instruction. One of the outcome of PPAAB‟s retreat held at Gambang, Kuantan in early 2013 is to study the prevalent, latest and most appropriate curriculum and its instruction for children of this age but not at the expense of neglecting the knowledge, attitude and skills to be acquired by Muslim children. Around the globe, we are familiar with Montessori methods, International Baccalaureate program and of late International Primary Curriculum program and naturally they become PPAAB‟s Curriculum, Research and Development Committee‟s object of study in addition to Finland education and Gulen‟s method. 

There are elements from each of those educational programs, which fulfill and attract our attention with respect to future curriculum and its instruction.  Features such as 21st century objectives (world, student, skill), thematic, big ideas, goals (personal, subject and international), learning process or structure (sound principles, rigorous, up to date, enjoyable, time saving, comprehensive), interdisciplinary and multidisciplinary, unit of work, learning style (collaborative, exploratory, mastery, inquiry, research and record) and last but not least assessment for learning best fit our description of future curriculum and instruction.  

By adopting those ideas, we hope to develop students into multi-perspectival, adaptable, resilient, internationally-minded, communicators, moral, thoughtful, co-operative, respectful, enquirers and FAST (fatanah, amanah, siddiq, tabligh) (wisdom, trustworthy, truthful, convey) personalities through learning activities which are meaningful or exciting, enriching or engaging, energetic or active, reflective, independent, innovative, effective and making connection. 
                
4.1.  Principles and Values to be adopted in AAIIC and Instruction  
4.1.1.  Children and students should be encouraged to inculcate the spirit of inquiry and explore.  
4.1.2.  The characteristics of active students should include among others wonder, plan, investigate,
           discover, reflect, share and act.  
4.1.3.  Spiritual and Character Education should emphasize on inculcating faith, knowing roles and
           responsibilities, encouraging goodness, refraining from prohibited acts, feelings, attitude and
           way of life and developing skills in al Qur‟an. 
4.1.4.  Adoption of challenging and inspirational ideas. 
4.1.5.  Effective TnL should be meaningful, integrative, value-based, challenging, and TnL Islamic
           studies should be active, interactive and interesting 
4.1.6.  TnL should focus on developing HOTS, indepths knowledge and related to the real world 
4.1.7. Measurement and evaluation should be organized, in accordance to standard and quality,
          continuous and fair.      (Tawhidi, 2001-6  & PPAAB, 2002) 

4.2.   A Glimpse at Proposed AAIIC and Its Instruction  
Having considered the proposed future Islamic studies curriculum and its instruction, AAIIC is planned to adopt the followings: 
4.2.1.  The curriculum content should prepare the students with the knowledge, skills and attitude,
           which are necessary to face contemporary challenges. 
4.2.2.  TnL of Islamic studies should employ styles, tools and technology that fit 21st century and
           generation.  
4.2.3.  Students should be made to understand Islam as a civilization vis a vis religion, culture or even
           way of life hence TnL adopts interdisciplinary and multidisciplinary approach 
4.2.4.  Students should be made aware that Islam is rahmatan li’l ‘alamin thus language and cultural
           barriers should be addressed and programs or activities for that purpose should be made
           available for them. 
4.2.5.  Most importantly, students should play their roles as ‘ibad and khulafa’ equipped with
          worldview of Islam as framework that enables them to provide solutions to contemporary
          challenges and problems.   
 
AAIIC is designed such that it is comprehensive and holistic thus constitutes elements of JTASK namely Jasadi (physical), Tawhidi (belief in Oneness of Allah : spiritual), Aqli (intellectual), Syu’uri (emotional) and Khuluqi (character). 

AAIIC learning goals are comprised of subject, personal and universal or ummatic. Personal goal comprises Mardhatillah (seeking Allah‟s pleasure) in salimul aqidah (true faith) and shahihul ibadah (valid worship); Ihsan (striving for excellence)  in qawiyyul jism (physical fitness), matinul khuluq (firm character) and mujahadatun linnafs (striving for Allah‟s sake); Ithar (preferring others above oneself) in muthaqqaful fikr (intellect), harithun ‘ala waqtihi (time management), and nafi’un lighairihi (benefit others); Islah (embracing transformation) in qadirun ‘ala kasb (ability to earn) and munazzamun fi syu’unihi (well organized). 

AAIIC core subjects for secondary level include Tasawwur Islami (Sources of Islamic thought, Worldview of Islam, Foundations of Islamic Civilisation, Contemporary Fiqh, the Caliph Program), Language Arts (Arabic and Mandarin), Social Studies (Psychology, Anthropology, Humanities), Arts, Designs & Technology (Visual, Auditory, Fine, Performing, Culinary, Agriculture, Handiwork), and last but not least Science of Al-Quran and Science of Hadith, which will be in Arabic. Interdisciplinary and multidisciplinary approach as well as ScienceOn1 (‘ilm as in tawhidic, Oneness of God perspective) approach will be adopted in TnL.  

A sample of proposed theme for secondary level is „Others and I‟ wherein we will find out Allah as the creator in Tasawwur Islami, Surah al-Ikhlas in science of al Qur‟an or al-Hadith, the beginning of humanity (Adam and Eve) and relationships between races and countries in social studies (history or sirah of the Prophets AS), parts of human and Ismul ‘isyarah (noun) in language arts (Arabic and Mandarin), varying arts, designs and technologies in Arts, Design and Technology, and we will be finding out different types of music genre in music or history of civilization. 
Having shared the above, despite some deliberations AAIIC needs further refinement.  
 
5.       CONCLUSION 
In conclusion, Islamic education should be more concerned with what it means to be Muslims (transformation) than teaching about Islam (information). The goal of Islamic education is not to fill their mind with as much information about Islam as possible but rather to guide and assist them in becoming Muslims, inspiring them to transform themselves in the process and equipping them with the knowledge, attitudes and skills most fitting for the 21st century yet remaining as ‘ibad and khulafa’.  

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS 
We would like to acknowledge members from PPAA board of governors and teachers in sharing their views on curriculum and instruction for developing Al-Amin Islamic Integrated Curriculum in a workshop that was held in August, 2014
.  
REFERENCES
  
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Amin A. Khairallah. 1946. Outline of Arabic Contributions to Medicine. Beirut: American Press of Beirut. 
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Ibn Khaldun. 1958. Ibn Khaldun: The Muqaddimah. (Vols. 1-3). (Franz Rosenthal, Trans.). New York: Princeton University Press.
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Nor Zalmiah Jahidin. 2009. Treatment of Knowledge : The Case of Al-Biruni and Ibn Battuta. Unpublished PhD Thesis : ISTAC, IIUM. ------------------------ 2011.
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Rosnani Hashim. 1996. Educational Dualism in Malaysia : Implication for Theory and  Practice. Kuala Lumpur : Oxford University Press.
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Note :
Paper presented at Oasis International Conference on Islamic Education (OICIE2014) on 5 November 2014 at PWTC, Kuala Lumpur, 'Positioning and Repositioning Islamic Education' 

Tuesday, April 21, 2015

REFORM IN THE ISLAMIC PERSPECTIVE

Notes based on talk by Prof Tariq Ramadan

i.                     Fatwa and ahkam change with time
ii.                   We often reduce Islam to legal aspect
iii.                  The concern now is on civilizational renewal ie tajdid hadari
Prerequisites to understanding reform
1.       What is usually understood of verses in the Qur’an and al-Hadith
……….for every century there’s someone or people to renew or to perform tajdid…Hadith.
·         The effort is not to reform Islam as in al Qur’an and al Hadith but to reform the understanding.
·         Islam is based on the eternal source but that has to be read with :
i)                    Historical evolution with knowledge and new understanding i.e. reading history with eternal source but living in on time
ii)                   Diversity of culture…..therefore understanding of the Qur’an and al-Hadith coincided with reality I.e. time and space. Mind and understanding are different
iii)                 Universality of Islam is not to deny diversity
2.       Reform is often understood as being reduced to legal opinions
·         Tajdid means that with the presence of new realities eg bio ethics etc, though Allah SWT remains silent about it (out of mercy)….it is for us to find new answers with the new reality. Renewal is performed when the text is silent about it e.g. smoking, cloning, economic issues etc.
·         Understanding of tajdid is always/often with ahkam. Though reform is wider but legal approaches are still needed. We must know where we are heading to i.e. we must have goals and means.
3.       Comprehensive understanding means understanding Islam in a way of life that encompasses everything and not just things legal. What gives us life?
·         It is also the heart and not just the mind
·         Relationship with nature
·         The way to look at the world ….transform and reform the way of looking at the world as :
i)                    The Sufis : tazkiatun al nafs
ii)                   Bilal : in the creations there are signs of Allah SWT…
iii)                 Al-Rasul SAW : ….to perfect akhlaq, reform relationship with Allah SWT by becoming IHSAN – levels of ‘amal i. as a trader to get Jannah, ii. do it because we love Him, iii.  do it out of ihsan i.e. to be close to Him
SHARI’AH : reduce to legal aspects (by some scholars)…
·         should be peaceful in implement reform e.g. the way of the sufi tradition…implement the act in your heart i.e. jihadun al nafs, relationship with Allah SWT e.g. 3R : respecting nature
·         reform as sources of justice in social, politic, economy, development, education, environment etc.
·         should define jihad correctly…no Shari’ah is without jihad in every field including intellectual jihad and spiritual jihad
4.       Ultimate goal of reform
·         Philosophers, muslims and non muslims eg al-Ghazali strive to gain saadah and falah
·         It should be Taqwa i.e. piety, God’s love, God’s consciousness
·         Taqwa : is a state or a mean, ultimate mean, a state of tranquillity ie SALAM, peacefulness
·         Jihad towards establishing peace i.e. to resist for peace and to reform towards peace
·         No Shari’ah is without resisting to oppressing
REFORM : radical reform…adapting to the world as it is changing…transform to become better
·         New responses to challenges, to make the world better
·         Goal may not be the same though we may have the same mindset…to protect and transform
·         Nurturing the sense that we are dominated i.e. was colonised therefore have to protect ourselves and to adapt. This will ‘bring us away’ from our goal i.e. to have the confidence
Problem : it  is psychological and not only lacking behind scientifically. Either we refer to goal or compete with them?
Cultural : distracting our mind (not only political and knowledge) – to protect from dominant civilization therefore,  
i)                    We have to categorize knowledge....Legal one i.e. halal and haram etc and adapt …it’s important but not all there is to it
ii)                   Liberate yourself…come to our goal
iii)                 Mercy is to stick to our goal and not means…fastabiqul khairat
iv)                 Transmit …to reality (mindset), what we need are sources, objectives, means

a)      Sources : The Qur’an and al-Hadith, the world, the universe, the sciences - Mu’az : Ijtihad (my mind); should it be lslamic everywhere eg Islamic medicine etc?
b)      Objectives : students of ibn Taimiyah ….legal and ethical, 5 objectives : maqasid al shari’ah (legal) and spiritual (internal); Adam as : knowledge and freedom (intimate stability)
c)       Means : not only legal i.e. not only the fuqaha, who shoulder the task to change the world …but specialists from all sciences, human and experimental, sociologists etc. Scholars and ulama should work together towards the goal….i.e. salam and justice.
We must not dream the future and idolize the past; stop protecting but instead adding, building, enriching
i)                    Hierarchy of knowledge
ii)                   Implicit categorization
iii)                 Involve in all the field of knowledge

iv)                 Complete all the fatawas 

Saturday, January 24, 2015

PERADABAN SEJAHTERA DAN NEGARA RAHMAH



Nor Zalmiah Jahidin[1]

‘Dan tiadalah kami mengutuskan engkau (wahai Muhammad) melainkan sebagai rahmah ke sekelian alam’ (al-Anbiyaa : 107)

Rasulullah SAW membangkitkan kesedaran kepada dunia yang lalai daripada sikap tidak endahnya dan memberi ilmu mengenai kriteria di antara kebenaran dan kepalsuan serta memberi amaran dengan jelas tentang jalan-jalan yang menuju kejayaan dan kemusnahan supaya manusia boleh membuat pilihan (Maududi, 2009 ).

Ayat dan tafsiran di atas sering menjadi rujukan apabila membicarakan tujuan risalah yang dibawa oleh Rasulullah SAW. Ia menjadi asas untuk memperincikan peradaban sejahtera yang akan memberi makna kepada Negara Rahmah.

Negara Rahmah menurut Maqasid al-Shariah

Dalam tahun ini, 2014, dunia Islam telah dikejutkan oleh satu dapatan yang menyimpulkan bahawa negara Ireland diikuti oleh Denmark dan Luxembourg mencapai kedudukan tertinggi menurut ‘Islamicity Index’ (bagaimana hampirnya mereka mengapplikasi prinsip-prinsip dari al-Qur’an) dengan melepasi kedudukan majoriti negara-negara Islam yang lain (IslamiCommentary, 2014). Apakah maknanya ini? Adakah ibadah mereka lebih khusyu’ atau hubungan mereka dengan Allah SWT lebih hampir atau mereka lebih Islamik dari segi pemakaian dan penampilan luaran atau telah melaksanakan Shari’ah? Benar, tidak dinafikan orang Islam lebih menonjol atau menjuarai aspek ini, tetapi di manakan kedudukan dunia Islam dari aspek, keadilan, rahmah, mengamalkan hikmah dan membawa kebaikan bersama (Audah, 2008). Sebagai penjelasan, index ini mengukur sejauh mana dipastikan keadilan dalam pencapaian ekonomi, stuktur pentadbiran yang sah, hak kemanusian dan politik (tiada penindasan dan tiada yang jadi pemerhati sahaja) dan hubungan internasional yang seimbang IslamiCommentary, 2014).

Jasser Audah dalam bukunya ‘Maqasid Shari’ah : A Beginners Guide’ menyimpulkan bahawa empat prinsip universal yang dinyatakan di atas tadi merupakan sebahagian daripada objektif yang ingin dicapai dalam perlaksanaan Shari’ah. Ini dibuktikan oleh ayat-ayat suruhan dan amaran di mana ia adalah berorientasikan pencapaian matlamat iaitu menjaga masalih (m. maslahah) individu dan masyarakat serta melancarkan pembaikan dan kesempurnaan (Kamali, 2008). Di antaranya ialah ‘sesungguhnya sembahyang itu mencegah perbuatan keji dan mungkar’ (29:45), ‘dan dalam hukuman Qisas itu ada jaminan hidup bagi kamu’ (2:179), mengenai zakat, ‘supaya harta itu tidak hanya beredar di antara orang-orang kaya di kalangan kamu’ (59:7), ‘supaya mereka menyekat pandangan mereka, dan memelihara kehormatan mereka. Yang demikian itu lebih suci bagi mereka’ (24:30) dan dalam ayat-ayat larangan di antaranya adalah untuk menghalang ketidak adilan, rasuah, bersangka buruk, eksploitasi, riba, ‘hoarding’ dan perjudian (Kamali, 2008).

Maqasid al-Shari’ah dianggap agak baru memasukki bidang perbahasan tetapi berkembang menurut zaman. Bermula dari kurun ke 4 dengan penekanan kepada : 1. Memelihara Din, Memelihara Nyawa, 3. Memelihara Keturunan, 4. Memelihara ‘Aqal, 5. Memelihara Harta, maqasid al-shariah terus berkembang kepada masalih yang lebih inklusif dan universal. Sebagi contoh memelihara maruah, memenuhi kontrak, memelihara pertalian keluarga, memelihara kebajikan dan sokongan masyarakat, memelihara perkembangan ekonomi dan memperkukuhkan R&D manakala memelihara ‘aqal berkembang kepada penyebaran pemikiran saintifik, menyemarakkan pencarian ilmu, mengekang ‘herd mentality’ serta mengelak ketirisan minda, memelihara maruah berkembang kepada memelihara hak-hak kemanusiaan dan memelihara agama berkembang kepada kebebasan agama menurut Ibn Ashur berdasarkan al Qur’an (2:256) atau kebebasan kepercayaan menurut terma kontemporari (Audah & Kamali, 2008). Penghuraian Maqasid al-Shari'ah menurut terminologi kontempotari berupaya menjadi 'tool for renewal and reform' dalam sesebuah peradaban yang sejahtera. Sebagai kesimpulan, apa sahaja yang memberi mafaat kepada individu dan masyarakat selagi tidak bercanggah dengan hukum dan prinsip boleh digolongkan dalam maslahah yang ingin dicapai. Peradaban sejahtera yang sebeginilah yang menjadi sebahagian daripada ciri-ciri negara Rahmah.

Untuk membawa Malaysia menuju Negara Rahmah sebagai cerminan peradaban sejahtera, perkara-perkara asas ini mesti berlaku

1. Prinsip-prinsip universal yang ingin dicapai dan dirasai atau dilaksanakan mesti wujud :

a) keadilan dalam memberi hak
b) hikmah dalam membuat tindakan/keputusan
c) rahmah dalam menyantuni atau bertindak
d) memberi kebaikan kepada semua

2. Prinsip-prinsip di atas adalah bertujuan supaya Maqasid Shari'ah terjamin atau terpelihara

a) Memelihara Agama
b) Memelihara Nyawa
c) memelihara Aqal
d) Memelihara Keturunan
e) Memelihara Harta
f) Memelihara Maruah

 Selari dengan perkembangan hari ini yang berkaitan dengan 'renewal & reform' khususnya 'civilizational renewal', 6 perkara di atas telah diperkembangkan lagi bersesuian dengan terminology hari ini. Di antaranya tiada paksaan dalam agama (utamakan dialog), memelihara kesejahteraan keluarga, kebebasan bersuara untuk menerima perbezaan pendapat, kebebasan untuk mengembangkan kekayaan/harta dengan cara yang terhormat serta kebebasan untuk memelihara hak-hak asas seorang manusia.

3. Dengan pre requisite yang dinyatakan di atas, untuk membawa Malaysia menuju Negara Rahmah bermakna segala aspek dan bidang kehidupan dalam Negara seperti sosial (kemasyarakatan), ekonomi, perbandaran, kesihatan, kesihatan, undang dan kehakiman, pendidikan, perlembagaan, agama, kesusateraan dan kebudayaan dan lain-lain mestilah memastikan 2 perkara di atas dan cabang-cabangnya dipenuhi. Perincian kepada setiap satu samada perancangan dan tindakan, perlu dimuzakarah dan dibengkelkan. 

Yang paling utama, perlu difahamkan bahawa shari'ah bukan hudud. Ianya lebih luas dan merangkumi bidang-bidang mu'amalat, munakahat, jinayat dan ibadah. Keindahan Islam (1 & 2) itu yang perlu diserlahkan manakala hudud adalah had-had (boundary/limit) yang perlu dipatuhi.

Peradaban Hari Ini dan Masa Hadapan : Satu Anjakan

Islam hari ini dan masa hadapan tidak boleh lagi dilihat sebagai lemah, lesu, mundur dan ketinggalan zaman.

Islam hari ini dan masa hadapan tidak boleh lagi bergantung semata-mata kepada slogan dan kekuatan emosi.

Islam hari ini dan masa hadapan menuntut Islam diterjemah dan diamalkan menjangkau agama, budaya, dan cara hidup.

Islam hari ini dan masa hadapan perlu diperjuangkan bukan sahaja sebagai agenda politik dan sosial semata-mata.

Islam hari ini dan masa hadapan memerlukan intelektual-intelektual untuk melaksanakan agenda perubahan pemikiran.

Islam hari ini dan masa hadapan perlu dibina di atas kekuatan pemikiran Islam yang merangkumi ilmu-ilmu kalam, tasawwuf, falsafah, dan shari‘ah.

Islam hari ini dan masa hadapan menuntut pemahaman fard ‘ayn yang berkembang selari dengan kematangan, pemikiran, kedudukan, status, dan pertanggungjawaban.

Islam hari ini dan masa hadapan menuntut pemahaman menegakkan fard kifayah adalah lebih diutamakan dalam suasana dan persekitaran yang asing [
al qiamu bifardi al-kifayah ahammu min fard al-'ayn, abu Imam al-Juwayni - jika sekiranya menegakkan fard al-kifayah itu lebih penting, maka mempelajari ilmu-ilmu yang berkaitan adalah dituntut dan menjadi fard 'ayn bagi yang boleh memenuhinya (dialah satu-satunya yang dipertanggungjawabkan dalam bidang itu)]

Islam hari ini dan masa hadapan memerlukan ilmuan-ilmuan yang berupaya melaksanakan ijtihad untuk menterjemahkan prinsip dan konsep dari tasawwur al Islam kepada situasi yang berubah-ubah (‘contemporary Islamic’ Asalah)

Islam hari ini dan masa hadapan memerlukan fiqh al haraki untuk menyokong fiqh al hadharah ke arah merealisasikan satu peradaban yang mu’asirah

Islam hari ini dan masa hadapan mesti diterjemahkan sebagai satu peradaban yang dinamik dan hidup dengan mengamalkan ciri, prinsip, dan nilai yang unik dan agung dalam struktur hidup beragama dan kemasyarakatan, pemerintahan dan politik, ekonomi dan kewangan, keutamaan serta penekanan saintifik dan teknologi, senibina dan pelan perbandaran, pendidikan dan pembangunan insan, serta kesenian dan kesusasteraan.

Hanya dengan cara memahami dan mengkaji Islam sebagai satu peradaban masa hadapan yang hidup dan dinamik, barulah keadilan sepenuhnya berlaku kepada Din al Islam di atas keyakinan dan keimanan bahawa Islam adalah sempurna dan lengkap yang membawa kesejahteraan kepada kehidupan di dunia dan akhirah di atas sifatnya sebagai rahmatan lil ‘alamin.
 

Peradaban Menjadi Asas Negara Rahmah
 
Berasaskan kepada kata akarnya, din mempunyai pelbagai manifestasi seperti rasa berhutang, penyerahan diri, kuasa kehakiman, dan fitrah. Satu daripada nama terbitannya ialah madina iaitu satu perbandaran yang berperanan sebagai sebuah negara di mana Madinah di zaman al-Rasul SAW adalah permulaan kepada pembentukan satu peradaban Islam. Bermula dari saat Islam bertapak di Madinah dan selanjutnya, Islam berhenti diamalkan sebagai hanya satu agama, atau satu sistem etika, atau hatta sebagai satu institusi politik. Sebaliknya, Islam berkembang sebagai peradaban yang merangkumi satu cara hidup lengkap dalam membimbing dan mengawal semua aspek kehidupan individu dan masyarakat. (al-Attas, 1996)
 
Malangnya, setiap kali penulis-penulis dan intelektual Islam membincangkan Islam sebagai satu peradaban, ia sentiasa berkisar di sekitar peradaban yang telah menjadi sejarah, tidak sekali-kali sebagai peradaban kontemporari atau masa hadapan. Dengan cara menghadkan aspek-aspek peradaban Islam kepada sejarah semata-mata, mereka secara tidak langsung telah mengabaikan Islam untuk masa hadapan. Perbincangan hanya berkisar di sekitar sama ada aspek-aspek Islam yang telah nyata seperti akhlaq dan keimanan, kegemilangan-kegemilangan silam, dan lebih malang membekukan lagi sekumpulan fiqh, pemikiran undang-undang, dan falsafah keilmuan yang seolah-olah sudah tidak boleh dikembangkan lagi. Hanya dengan menawarkan Islam sebagai satu peradaban yang hidup, dinamik, dan mempunyai warisan intelektual yang berupaya mezahirkan institusi dan kepelbagaian pendekatan untuk menangani permasalahan, maka barulah generasi Islam hari ini mampu berdepan dengan cabaran dan ancaman ideologi, falsafah, dan pemikiran yang asing serta budaya dan ‘agama’ lain. (Sardar, 1985)
 
Pendekatan

Usaha pembinaan peradaban Islam harus bermula dengan proses penjelasan mengenai pandangan alam Islam yang merangkumi
prinsip-prinsip dan konsep-konsep asas dalam Islam yang terdiri daripada ketuhanan, kerasulan, hari kebangkitan,  kejadian manusia dan alam, ilmu serta nilai. Pandangan alam yang hakiki ini bakal memperbetul dan meperkukuhkan pegangan, pemikiran, dan tindakan setiap individu Muslim sebagaimana yang berlaku pada fasa awal Islam. Islam sebagai satu cara hidup yang lengkap perlu diterjemahkan dalam bentuk satu peradaban di mana setiap individu di dalamnya terdidik dengan aqidah, iman dan adab Islami. Sebagai khulafa’, mereka berusaha untuk membangun dan mengerakkan institusi-institusi menurut prinsip, ruang dan polisi yang shar’iyyah dalam zaman dan situasi yang berubah-ubah.
 
Kumpulan ilmuan yang berpegang dengan ‘Islam sebagai satu cara hidup’ tidak boleh berpuas hati setakat menyatakan semula pendekatan-pendekatan klasikal dan tradisi seolah-olah ilmuan-ilmuan dan imam-imam terdahulu telah menyelesaikan segala permasalahan. Pendokong gerakan Islam hari ini dituntut untuk pergi lebih jauh daripada itu dengan menyediakan alternatif dan penyelesaian yang jelas Islamik kepada segala macam permasalahan yang dihadapi oleh masyarakat hari ini. Proses pembinaan tamadun Islam mesti berlaku secara teori dan praktikal di mana pembinaan ini memerlukan usaha dari sebilangan ilmuan yang datang dari pelbagai latar belakang pendidikan dan disiplin. Mereka dikehendaki supaya menumpu dan memfokuskan keupayaan kepada usaha yang berbentuk inter-disiplin yang menjurus kepada pembinaan tamadun Islam untuk hari ini dan masa hadapan. Peradaban Islam adalah satu ‘historic continuum’ iaitu ia telah wujud sebelum ini, boleh wujud pada hari ini, dan akan wujud pada masa hadapan. Apa yang lebih penting ialah setiap langkah untuk hari esok memerlukan penghuraian yang lebih mendalam dan kontemporari terhadap pandangan alam Islam. Kefahaman yang benar tentang pandangan alam Islam akan menghasilkan tindakan yang selari bagi mendokong peranan sebagai abid dan khalifah iaitu mengabdikan diri kepada Allah SWT serta melaksanakan tanggungjawab untuk mewujudkan kesejahteraan kepada alam dan ummah. Untuk ini, ia memerlukan satu kerahan intelek di atas prinsip ijtihad yang dinamik supaya prinsip dan konsep Islam boleh bergerak selari dengan situasi yang berubah-ubah untuk ditranslasikan di dalam sesebuah peradaban hari ini dan masa hadapan. Eksplorasi untuk menterjemahkan Islam sebegini perlu dilakukan dalam keseluruhan julat konsep-konsep Islam yang tulin seperti tawhid, khilafah, ‘adl, ‘ilm, ta’dib, ijma’, maslahah, istislah, istihsan, ‘ibadah, iman, zulm, halal, haram, riba, dan lain-lain. (Sardar, 1985).
 
Kehidupan al-Rasul SAW adalah satu contoh penerusan tindakan-tindakan yang berorientasikan masa hadapan dan pembentukan ‘taqdir’ yang terangkum di dalam spektra kemungkinan yang boleh direalisasikan (Sardar, 1985). Al-Rasul SAW menjangkakan kemungkinan-kemungkinan masa hadapan sebelum mengambil tindakan sebagaimana Hijrah al-Rasul SAW dari Makkah ke Madinah yang bersandarkan jangkaan masa hadapan yang lebih ‘viable’ bagi sekumpulan kecil pendokong Islam ketika itu. Begitu banyak contoh yang ditinggalkan oleh al-Rasul SAW yang menjanjikan jangkaan positif pada masa hadapan di antaranya ialah perjanjian ‘Aqabah dan Hudaibiyyah, penetapan Sahifah al-Madinah (hak asasi dan pertahanan), mengasaskan institusi-institusi seperti masjid, pendidikan (ahl al-Suffah) dan ekonomi (zakat, bait al-mal, awqaf) serta perhubungan internasional (jemputan kepada Pembesar-Pembesar Negara untuk menerima atau bernaung di bawah Islam). Sirah dan Sunnah al-Rasul SAW perlu di ambil sebagai khazanah yang mengandungi prinsip, data, struktur dan hikmah bagi menghasilkan disiplin-disiplin baru atau rumusan-rumusan berbentuk teori untuk mendapatkan penyelesaian bagi permasalahan politik, sosial, ekonomi dan aspek-aspek lain bukan sekadar memastikan ketepatan fakta, peristiwa, percakapan dan perlakuan.

Bersandarkan contoh yang ditunjukkan oleh al-Rasul SAW, pendokong gerakan Islam hari ini mesti berupaya untuk melahirkan satu senarai yang lengkap mengenai kaedah-kaedah alternatif bagi menjelmakan semula peradaban Islam yang dinamik dan hidup pada zaman ini. Ianya perlu disuburkan oleh tindakan dan pemikiran yang berorientasikan masa hadapan. Justeru, pendidikan memainkan peranan yang sangat penting untuk membentuk kefahaman bahawa Islam menawarkan satu pandangan hidup yang lengkap dan mampu dijelmakan sebagai sesuatu yang sistematik, praktikal, dinamik dan menyeluruh. Islam sebagai peradaban yang merangkumi agama, budaya, dan cara hidup ianya menawarkan masa hadapan yang sejahtera : di dunia dan di akhirat.
 
"Our task is to dream and work for the future -- for a time when a new Muslim civilization will emerge -- a dynamic, thriving, growing, healthy and happy civilization; a civilization in which man will be at peace with himself, with the physical environment and, above all, with his Creator. In the meantime, we must plan and produce the prerequisites for such a civilization." (Siddiqi, 1996)
 
 
Rujukan
AbuSulayman, ‘AbdulHamid A. 1993. Crisis in the Muslim Mind. Herndon : IIIT
 
al-Attas, Syed Muhammad Naquib, 1999. The Concept of Education in Islam. KL :
ISTAC
 
Audah, Jasser. 2008. Maqasid al-Shari’ah : A Beginner’s Guide. London & Washington : IIIT
 
IslamiCommentary. Available at
 
Kamali, M. H. 2008. Maqasid al-Shari’ah Made Simple. London & Washington : IIIT
 
Maududi, S. A. A. 2009. The Meaning of the Qur’an. available at
            http://www.englishtafsir.com/Quran/21/index.html [Accessed on 13 October 2014]
 
Nor Zalmiah Jahidin, 2009. Treatment of Knowledge :The Case of Al-Biruni and Ibn Battuta.        Unpublished PhD Thesis : ISTAC, IIUM
 
Sardar, Ziauddin. 1985. Islamic Futures : The Shape of Ideas to Come. London and New
York : Mansell Publishing Limited
 
Siddiqi, K. 1996. Stages of Islamic Revolution.
 
Wan Daud, Wan Mohd Nor. 1998. The Educational Phillosophy and Practice of Syed
Muhammad Naquib Al Attas : An Exposition of the Concept of Islamization.
Kuala Lumpur : ISTAC
 



[1] Ahli Pertubuhan IKRAM Petaling Jaya & Ahli JKW Selangor 2014 – 2016.

Monday, August 4, 2014

Negara-Ku & Maqasid Shari'ah

Sokongan terhadap gerakan N-K adalah selari dengan prinsip-prinsip inklusif yang ingin dicapai dari perlaksanaan Shari'ah iaitu mewujudkan keadilan, rahmah, hikmah dan kebaikan bersama dalam sebuah kehidupan yang bertamadun.

Usaha untuk mewujudkan prinsip-prinsip di atas adalah bertujuan untuk menjamin Maqasid al-Shari'ah tercapai. Secara tradisi, tamadun atau peradaban yang memelihara 6 perkara asas dalam Maqasid Shari'ah yang menjadi Maslahah Ummah iaitu :

1. Memelihara Agama
2. Memelihara Nyawa
3. Memelihara Keturunan
4. Memelihara 'Aqal
5. Memelihara Maruah
6. Memelihara Harta

boleh dianggap sudah melaksanakan tanggungjawab sesebuah peradaban. Aspek-aspek yang ingin diperjuangkan oleh Gerakan N-K adalah 'extension' kepada Maqasid al-Shari'ah menurut terminologi kontempotari yang berupaya menjadi 'tool for renewal and reform'.

Aspek-aspek yang diperjuangkan seperti :

1. Menolak segala bentuk intoleransi, kebencian, pelampau dan keganasan : Memelihara agama, nyawa, aqal, maruah

2. Menolak segala bentuk diskriminasi, penindasan, ketidakadilan : Memelihara nyawa, aqal, maruah

3. Berusaha untuk mewujudkan satu masyarakat yang inklusif : Memelihara agama, nyawa, maruah, aqal

4. Mendesak kerajaan dan institusinya menghormati, berpegang dan memelihara undang-undang : Memelihara agama, nyawa, aqal, maruah

5. Mendesak untuk memelihara prinsip-prinsip integriti, akauntabiliti dan ketelusan dalam semua aspek pentadbiran : Memelihara agama, aqal, maruah

boleh dianggap sebagai memelihara aspek-aspek yang terkandung dalam Maqasid al-Shari'ah.

Penggabungan atau kerjasama dengan NGO atau peribadi bukan Islam atas isu-isu bersama yang selari dengan ruh Islam adalah diharuskan. Sebagai contoh isu-isu 'go green', penjimatan air, hak warga negara dalam pendidikan, peluang yang sama rata untuk 'create harta' dan isu-isu lain adalah tidak lari dari menjadi 'the concern of Islam' atau mana-mana masyarakat yang bertamadun. Malah semuanya itu adalah kesinambungan kepada memelihara nyawa, aqal dan harta.

......masih boleh diperhalusi oleh yang lebih 'arif.

Wallahu a'lam

Sunday, June 8, 2014

Shari'ah dan Peradaban



Dalam satu bengkel,  Maqasid al-Shari’ah (MS) dan Masyarakat Madani, pembentang menyarankan agar shari’ah diperluaskan skopnya supaya melampaui ruang lingkup perundangan. Dalam erti kata lain, sampai masanya shari’ah berperanan lebih aktif dalam kehidupan sosial dan bidang-bidang lain.

Dalam perbincangan yang tidak formal dengan rakan-rakan selepas satu sesi temubual di radio 24 Bernama mengenai program ‘Seminar Wanita dan Shari’ah’, ada yang menyarankan agar mewara-warakan juga hubungkait shari’ah dengan peradaban.

Dengan dua situasi ini, satu inisiatif untuk memulakan perbincangan berkisar disekitar isu ini perlu diambil. 

Menurut pandangan beberapa ulama tradisi terdahulu, shari’ah seperti yang sentiasa ditegaskan oleh Prof Dr Jasser Auda akan menjadi lebih inklusif, universal, dan menarik pandangan ramai apabila shari’ah difahami sebagai sesuatu yang boleh membawa kepada keadilan, rahmah, hikmah dan kebaikan bersama. Dengan ini, masyarakat dapat bermuamalah berlandaskan satu sistem nilai yang akan membawa kepada kehidupan manusia yang sejahtera. Jika pengertian  shari’ah sebegini yang difahami oleh ramai samada Muslim dan bukan Muslim, sokongan dari pelbagai pihak pasti berada dibelakang perlaksanaan shari’ah, in sha Allah. Tibalah masanya untuk  menyusun usaha supaya shari’ah menjadi lebih mesra dan popular. Untuk ini, ditegaskan sekali lagi iaitu shari'ah secara umum mesti dilihat sebagai memperjuangkan keadilan, rahmah, hikmah dan kebaikan bersama. Semua yang berlawanan adalah bukan daripada shari'ah. Gambaran atau persepsi shari’ah sebagai ‘ossified body of law’, ‘intellectually sterile body of knowledge’, tidak berkaitan dengan sekarang dan masa hadapan , mundur, serius iaitu tiada unsur hiburan,  tidak professional dan ciri-ciri negatif yang lain perlu diberi sudut pandang yang betul. Yang lebih penting perlu diingat iaitu perlaksanaan shari'ah termasuk hudud bukannya 'sudden or overnight affair instead it is like a spiral confined by its limits but moving with time with its norm requiring a fresh effort to understand by Muslims of every epoch.'  
 
Persoalan berikutnya ialah bagaimana pula peranan shari’ah dalam sesuatu peradaban? Untuk melihat shari’ah sebagai satu ‘problem solving methodology’, Islam mesti diketengahkan sebagai suatu peradaban yang merangkumi keagamaan dan kerohanian, kemasyarakatan dan kebudayan, keilmuan dan pendidikan, kesenian dan kesusasteraan, perundangan dan pemerintahan, ekonomi, sains dan teknologi, serta persekitaran dan kesihatan. Dengan berlandaskan keadilan, rahmah, hikmah dan kebaikan bersama, shari’ah khususnya maqasid al-shari’ah berupaya menjadi ‘tool for renewal and reform’ samada dalam bidang perundangan, fiqh, sosial dan bidang-bidang yang lain. Sebagai objektif kepada shari’ah, MS secara tradisinya mengutamakan maslahah al-khair berhubung dengan pemeliharaan nyawa, aqal, harta, iman dan marwah. Untuk peradaban hari ini, MS memerlukan satu penterjemahan kontemporari. Sebagai contoh pemeliharaan nyawa kepada pemeliharaan keluarga, pemeliharaan harta kepada penyuburan harta, pemeliharaan aqal kepada pengembangan aqal iaitu menuntut ilmu serta mencipta kreativiti, pemeliharaan marwah kepada kebebasan hak dan bersuara, pemeliharaan agama kepada kebebasan kepercayaan. 

Dengan terminologi kontemporari, MS berupaya menjadi ‘tool for reform and renewal’ bagi sesuatu peradaban. Disamping itu ia boleh diaplikasikan kepada masyarakat madani dan aktivisme sosial. Tiga perkara yang perlu ditentukan adalah :

1. Menentukan objektif termasuk visi dan misi supaya mengambil kira ketetapan MS. Ini bermakna komiti-komiti yang terbentuk mesti meletakkan objektif selaras dengan MS.

2. Menetapkan keutamaaan berkisar sekitar MS dengan pertimbangan daruriyat, hajjiyat dan tahsiniyat. Sebagai contoh dalam misi-misi kemanusiaan perlu pertimbangan samada mengagihkan al-qur’an lebih penting dari 
memberi makanan dan minuman, mengembangkan kekayaan dari memelihara agama, menuntut ilmu dari memelihara marwah dan lain-lain.

     3. Muslim dan juga non Muslim harus berkerjasama di atas objektif dan nilai sesuatu isu yang disepakati. Isu ini adalah juga merupakan isu Islamik seperti pemeliharan alam sekitar, ‘go green’, penjimatan air, pendidikan dan lain-lain.

Berdasarkan tiga ketetapan di atas, sosial aktivisme, masyarakat madani malah peradaban berupaya untuk bergerak dan berkembang dalam ruang lingkup shari’ah dengan memastikan MS terpelihara. Paling utama disamping kesejahteraan yang tercipta mampu dinikmati oleh alam dan manusia sejagat, shari’ah dan maqasidnya terbukti mampu menawarkan satu 'problem solving methodology' bagi ummah. Wallahu a'alam.